Plant Responses to Climatic Warming
Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory


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ORNL Publications on Effects of Climatic Warming
on Terrestrial Ecosystems


also see ORNL Publications on Plant Response to Elevated CO2





Chen X, Post WM, Norby RJ, Classen AT. 2011, Modeling soil respiration and variations in source components using a multi-factor global climate change experiment. Climatic Change 107:459-480.

Hanson PJ, Childs KW, Wullschleger SD, Riggs JS, Thomas WK, Todd DE, Warren JM. 2011. A method for experimental heating of intact soil profiles for application to climate change experiments. Global Change Biology 17: 1083-1096.

Kardol P, Reynolds WN, Norby RJ, Classen AT. 2011. Climate change effects on soil microarthropod abundance and community structure. Applied Soil Ecology 47: 37-44.

Amthor JS, Hanson PJ, Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD. 2010. A comment on "Appropriate experimental ecosystem warming methods by ecosystem, objective, and practicality" by Aronson and McNulty. Agricultural And Forest Meteorology 150: 497-498.

Brosi GB , McCulley RL, Bush LP, Nelson JA, Classen AT, Norby RJ. 2010. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry. New Phytologist 189:797-805.

Castro HF, Classen AT, Austin EE, Norby RJ, Schadt CW. 2010. Precipitation regime is the major driver of changes in soil microbial community structure over CO2 and temperature in a multifactorial climate change experiment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76: 999-1007.

Classen AT, Norby RJ, Campany CE, Sides KE, Weltzin JF. 2010. Climate change alters seedling emergence and establishment in an old-field ecosystem. PLoS ONE 5: e13476.

de Graaff MA, Classen AT, Castro HF, Schadt CW. 2010. Labile soil carbon inputs mediate the soil microbial community composition and plant residue decomposition rates. New Phytologist 188: 1055-1064.

Gunderson CA, O'Hara KH, Campion CM, Walker AV, Edwards, NT. 2010. Thermal plasticity of photosynthesis: the role of acclimation in forest responses to a warming climate Global Change Biology 16: 2272-2286.

Kardol P, Campany CE, Souza L, Norby RJ, Weltzin JF, Classen AT. 2010. Climate change effects on plant biomass alter dominance patterns and community evenness in an experimental old-field ecosystem. Global Change Biology 16: 2676-2687.

Kardol P, Cregger MA, Campany CE, and Classen AT. 2010. Soil ecosystem functioning under climate change: plant species and community effects. Ecology 91:767-781.

Engel EC, Weltzin JF, Norby RJ, Classen AT. 2009. Responses of an old-field plant community to interacting factors of elevated [CO2], warming, and soil moisture. Journal of Plant Ecology 2: 1-11.

Garten CT Jr., Classen AT, Norby RJ. 2009. Soil moisture surpasses elevated CO2 and temperature in importance as a control on soil carbon dynamics in a multi-factor climate change experiment. Plant and Soil 319: 85-94.

Villalpando SN, Williams RS, Norby RJ. 2009. Elevated air temperature alters an old-field insect community in a multifactor climate change experiment. Global Change Biology 15: 930-942.

Garten CT Jr., Classen AT, Norby RJ, Brice, DJ, Weltzin JF, Souza L. 2008. Role of N2-fixation in constructed old-field communities under different regimes of [CO2], temperature, and water availability. Ecosystems 11 125-137.[abstract and link to online publication] |  [full text in pdf]

Gu L, Hanson PJ, Post WM , Kaiser DP, Yang B, Nemani R, Pallardy SG, Meyers T. 2008. The 2007 eastern US spring freezes: Increased cold damage in a warming world? BioScience 58: 253-262

Luo YQ,Gerten D, Le Maire G, Parton WJ, Weng ES, Zhou XH, Beier C, Ciais P, Cramer W, Dukes JS, Emmett B, Hanson PJ, Knapp A, Linder S, Nepstad D, Rustad L. 2008. Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones. Global Change Biology 14: 1986-1999.

Dermody O, Weltzin JF, Engel EC, Allen P, Norby RJ. 2007. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem? Plant and Soil 301: 255-266

Norby RJ, Rustad LE,  Dukes JS, Ojima DS, Parton WJ, Del Grosso SJ, McMurtrie RE, Pepper DA. 2007. Ecosystem responses to warming and interacting global change factors. pp. 23-36 In Canadell JG, Pataki DE, Pitelka LF, eds., Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Wan S, Norby RJ, Ledford J, Weltzin JF. 2007. Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO2, air warming, and changing soil water availability in an old-field grassland. Global Change Biology 13: 2411­2424.

King AW, Gunderson CA, Post WM, Weston DJ, Wullschleger SD. 2006. Plant respiration in a warmer world. Science 312: 536-537.

Hanson PJ, Wullschleger SD, Norby RJ, Tschaplinski TJ, Gunderson CA. 2005. Importance of changing CO2, temperature, precipitation, and ozone on carbon and water cycles of an upland oak forest: incorporating experimental results into model simulations. Global Change Biology 11: 1402-1423.

Norby RJ, Luo Y. 2004. Evaluating ecosystem responses to rising atmospheric CO2 and global warming in a multi-factor world. New Phytologist 162: 281-294.

Pendall E, Bridgham S, Hanson PJ, Hungate B, Kicklighter DW, Johnson DW, Law BE, Luo Y, Megonigal JP, Olsrud M, Ryan MG, Wan S. 2004. Below-ground process responses to elevated CO2 and temperature a discussion of observations, measurement methods, and models. New Phytologist 162 311-322.

Wan S, Norby RJ, Pregitzer KS, Ledford J, O'Neill EG. 2004. CO2 Enrichment and warming of the atmosphere enhance both productivity and mortality of maple tree fine roots. New Phytologist 162: 437-446.

Norby RJ, Hartz-Rubin J, Verbrugge MJ. 2003. Pheonological responses in maple to experimental atmospheric warming and CO2 enrichment. Global Change Biology 9: 1792-1801.

Williams RS, Lincoln DE, Norby RJ. 2003. Development of gypsy moth larvae feeding on red maple saplings at elevated CO2 and temperature. Oecologia 137: 114-122.

Bugmann HKM, Wullschleger SD, Price DT, Ogle K, Clark DF, Solomon AM. 2001.Comparing the performance of forest gap models in North America. Climatic Change 51: 349-388.

Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D, Swanson FJ, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM. 2001. Climate change and forest disturbances. BioScience 51:723-734.

Hansen AJ, Neilson RR, Dale VH, Flather CH, Iverson LR, Currie DJ, Shafer S, Cook R, Bartlein PJ. 2001. Global change in forests Responses of species, communities, and biomes. BioScience 51: 765-779.

Norby, R. J., K. Ogle, P. S. Curtis, F.-W. Badeck, A. Huth, G. C. Hurtt, T. Kohyama, and J. Peņuelas. 2001. Aboveground growth and competition in forest gap models: An analysis for studies of climatic change. Climatic Change 51: 415-447.

Rustad L. E. and R. J. Norby. 2001. Temperature Increase: Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems. pp. 575-581. In: H. A. Mooney and J. Canadell (eds.), The Earth System: Biological and Ecological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Vol. 2 in Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.

Rustad L. E , Campbell J. L., Marion G. M., Norby R. J., Mitchell M. J., Hartley A. E., Cornelissen J. H. C., Gurevitch J., and GCTE-NEWS. 2001. A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia 126:543-562.

Wullschleger SD, Jackson RB, Currie WS, Friend AD, Luo Y, Mouillot F, Pan Y, Shao GF. 2001. Below-ground processes in gap models for simulating forest response to global change. Climatic Change 51: 449-473.

Carter, G. A., R. Bahadur, and R. J. Norby. 2000. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on leaf optical properties in Acer saccharum. Environmental and Experimental Botany 43: 267-273.

Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP. 2000. The interplay between climate change, forests, and disturbances. Science of the Total Environment 262: 201-204.

Gunderson, C. A., R. J. Norby, R. J., and S. D. Wullschleger. 2000. Acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to simulated climatic warming in northern and southern populations of Acer saccharum: laboratory and field evidence. Tree Physiology 20: 87-96.

Gunter, L. E., G. A. Tuskan, C. A. Gunderson, and R. J. Norby. 2000. Genetic variation and spatial structure in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and implications for predicted global-scale environmental change. Global Change Biology 6: 335-344.

Johnson DW, Susfalk RB, Gholz HL, Hanson PJ. 2000. Simulated effects of temperature and precipitation change in several forest ecosystems. Journal of Hydrology 235:183-204.

Norby R.J., T. M. Long, J. S. Hartz-Rubin, and E. G. O'Neill. 2000. Nitrogen resorption in senescing tree leaves in a warmer, CO2-enriched atmosphere. Plant and Soil 224: 15-29.

Williams, R. S., R. J. Norby, and D. E. Lincoln. 2000. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature-grown red and sugar maple on gypsy moth performance. Global Change Biology 6: 685-695.

Cushman, R. M. 1999. Global climatic-change modeling and monitoring. pp. 291-298 IN The Encyclopedia of Environmental Science, D. E. Alexander and R. W. Fairbridge (eds.). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, and London.

McLaughlin S, Percy K. 1999. Forest health in North America Some perspectives on actual and potential roles of climate and air pollution. Water Air Soil Poll 116 :151-197.

Edwards, N.T. and R.J. Norby. 1998. Below-ground respiratory responses of sugar maple and red maple saplings to atmospheric CO2 enrichment and elevated air temperature. Plant and Soil 206:85-97.

Luxmoore, R. J., P. J. Hanson, J. J. Beauchamp, and J. D. Joslin. 1998. Passive nighttime warming facility for forest ecosystem research. Tree Physiology 18615­623.

Dale VH. 1997.The relationship between land-use change and climate change Ecol Appl 7: 753-769.

King AW, Post WM, Wullschleger SD. 1997. The potential response of terrestrial carbon storage to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2. Climatic Change 35: 199-227.

Mulholland PJ, Best GR, Coutant CC, Hornberger GM, Meyer JL, Robinson PJ, Stenberg JR, Turner RE, VeraHerrera F, Wetzel RG. 1997. Effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the south-eastern United States and the Gulf Coast of Mexico. Hydrological Processes 11: 949-970.

Norby, R. J., N. T. Edwards, J. S. Riggs, C. H. Abner, S. D. Wullschleger, and C. A. Gunderson. 1997. Temperature-controlled open-top chambers for global change research. Global Change Biology 3:259-267.

Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD, Gunderson CA. 1996. Tree responses to elevated CO2 and the implications for forests. pp. 1-21 In: G. W. Koch and H. A. Mooney (eds.), Terrestrial Ecosystem Response to Elevated Carbon Dioxide. Academic Press, San Diego.

Dale VH, Rauscher HM. 1994. Assessing impacts of climate-change on forests - the state of biological modeling. Climatic Change 28: 65-90.

Luxmoore RJ, DD Baldocchi. 1995. Modelling interactions of carbon dioxide, forests, and climate. In: Woodwell GM, Mackenzie FT (eds.) Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System: Will Warming Feed the Warming? Oxford University Press, New York.

Luxmoore RJ, Wullschleger SD, Hanson PJ. 1993.Forest responses to CO2 enrichment and climate warming. Water Air and Soil Pollution 70: 309-323.

Pastor J, Post WM. 1993. Linear regressions do not predict the transient responses of eastern North-American forests to CO2-induced climate change. Climatic Change 23: 111-119.

Shugart HH, Smith TM, Post WM. 1992. The potential for application of individual-based simulation-models for assessing the effects of global change. Annu REV Ecol Syst 23: 15-38.

Post WM, Pastor J, KING AW, Emanuel WR. 1992. Aspects of the interaction between vegetation and soil under global change. Water Air and Soil Pollution 64:345-363.

Graham RL, Turner MG, Dale VH. 1990. How increasing CO2 and climate change affect forests - at many spatial and temporal scales, there will be forest responses that will be affected by human activities. BioScience 40: 575-587.

Dale VH, Franklin JF. 1989. Potential effects of climate change on stand development in the Pacific Northwest. Can J Forest Res 19:1581-1590.

Cushman RM, Spring PN. 1989. Differences among model simulations of climate change on the scale of resource regions. Environ Manage 13: 789-795.

Pastor J, Post WM. 1988. Response of northern forests to CO2-induced climate change Nature 334: 55-58.

Pastor J, Post WM. 1986. Influence of climate, soil-moisture, and succession on forest carbon and nitrogen cycles. Biogeochemistry 2: 3-27.

Solomon AM. 1986. Transient-response of forests to CO2-induced climate change - simulation modeling experiments in eastern North-America. Oecologia 68: 567-579.


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Last revised: August 1, 2008